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There are various grammatical aspects to bear in mind:
Can we separate the two parts of the verb?
1.- SEPARABLE: can be separated
on the light verb + preposition + object (better
with a long object)
2.- INSEPARABLE: can't be separated
after the children verb +
preposition + object
3.- INSEPARABLE & NO OBJECT: can't be separated
went away. verb + preposition
So remember that when we have an object (it, him her, the bus, etc) we need to know the word order. This information is shown in most dictionaries. But even if it isn't you should study the example to try to learn how the verb is used.
If you are not sure whether a verb is separable, don't separate it. You will always be right.
Verbs with two prepositions
Phrasal verbs like put up with sb/sth have two prepositions and are never separated. There are few verbs with two prepositions.
Phrasal verb noun & adjective forms
Just like many other verbs in the language, phrasal verbs can also be used as nouns and adjectives.
These are some examples: backup, pick-up, or slowdown, and adjectives like spaced-oud, burned-out, broken-down, and many others.
Phrasal verbs, multi-word verbs, prepositional verbs, and so on. There are many different names for phrasal verbs but you shouldn't worry about this. The name is not important althought the most accepted term is phrasal verbs.
The preposition can be a preposition or and adverb. Again this is not important at all. You can call it a preposition, a preposition or an adverb. On this site we use the word preposition because it covers both prepositions and adverbs.
The important thing is being able to understand and use phrasal verbs.
Learn phrasal verbs properly
These two examples show you things that help you remember phrasal verbs:
Example 1.- To learn keep down try to remember...
Example 2.- To learn come across try to remember...
The meaning of phrasal verbs may not be obvious but it's usually logical.
When you become familiar with the different meanings of prepositions it's easy to understand most phrasal verbs. Try to figure out the meaning of the preposition every time you learn a new phrasal verb. Go to the pages on this site where the meanings are explained with examples and compare the new phrasal verb you are learning with similar phrasal verbs that share the same preposition meaning.
Sometimes though, it's just not possible to understand the logic behind the preposition. But there is surely a reason for speakers to use that preposition. It may just be that the choice of preposition was logical at the time to describe a common situation, but social change means we no longer find it logical because things are different now.